Godse was found guilty and executed in 1949. [370] It is not important to convert or to join any religion, but it is important to improve one's way of life and conduct by absorbing ideas from any source and any religion, believed Gandhi. Mehta's residence in Bombay. Celui-ci est fondé sur l’idée que la force des injustices dans une société vient de ce qu’elles bénéficient de la complicité ou de la coopération de la majorité des membres de cette société. [82] During a speech in September 1896, Gandhi complained that the whites in the British colony of South Africa were degrading Indian Hindus and Muslims to "a level of Kaffir". Le Mahatma Gandhi a été assassiné vendredi, à la Nouvelle-Delhi. [59][60] He spent 21 years in South Africa, where he developed his political views, ethics and politics. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. [84], In 1906, when the British declared war against the Zulu Kingdom in Natal, Gandhi at age 36, sympathised with the Zulus and encouraged the Indian volunteers to help as an ambulance unit. [368] Gandhi opposed missionary organisations who criticised Indian religions then attempted to convert followers of Indian religions to Islam or Christianity. Ce mardi 30 janvier, le peuple indien célèbrera le triste anniversaire des 70 ans de la mort de Gandhi. In 2000, a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as it contained a large number of errors and omissions. [359], According to Gandhi, a non-violent state is like an "ordered anarchy". Philosopher Martin Buber was highly critical of Gandhi's approach and in 1939 wrote an open letter to him on the subject. [356][357], Nai Talim evolved out of his experiences at the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, and Gandhi attempted to formulate the new system at the Sevagram ashram after 1937. Apôtre de la non-violence, dirigeant politique, guide spirituel et source d'inspiration, le Mahatma Gandhi a dédié sa vie à la lutte contre les discriminations et les injustices sociales. [26] Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature. His experiments with food began in the 1890s and continued for several decades. C'est une triste nouvelle pour le monde du cinoche, pour moi aussi car mon pseudo vient du perso de Newman dans L'Arnaqueur et La Couleur de l'Argent. Their disagreement is the first known example of Gandhi challenging authority, despite his shyness and temperamental disinclination towards confrontation. No exception can possibly be taken to the natural desire of the Jews to find a home in Palestine. [39], At age 9, Gandhi entered the local school in Rajkot, near his home. The satyagraha civil disobedience followed, with people assembling to protest the Rowlatt Act. Gandhi joined them in their prayers and debated Christian theology with them, but refused conversion stating he did not accept the theology therein or that Christ was the only son of God. [65] Gandhi began to question his people's standing in the British Empire. This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela...in a sense Mandela completed what Gandhi started."[404]. Some of his staff resigned, including two of his newspaper's editors who had refused to print some of Gandhi's sermons dealing with his experiments. Le rôle qu’il joua au cours des troubles de Bihar en 1916 et de la grève d’Ahmedabad en 1917 lui valut une grande popularité. [230][231][232], During his stay in South Africa, along with scriptures and philosophical texts of Hinduism and other Indian religions, Gandhi read translated texts of Christianity such as the Bible, and Islam such as the Quran. » Ajoutons que le roi d’Angleterre a fait parvenir au gouverneur général des Indes, lord Mountbatten, le message suivant : « La reine et moi-même sommes profondément émus par la nouvelle de la mort du mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism which was demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India. [304] In 1938, Gandhi spoke in favour of Jewish claims, and in March 1946, he said to the Member of British Parliament Sidney Silverman, "if the Arabs have a claim to Palestine, the Jews have a prior claim", a position very different from his earlier stance. A Gandhian can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism. [328] A wife is not a slave of the husband, stated Gandhi, but his comrade, better half, colleague and friend, according to Lyn Norvell. However, the state would limit the use of weapons by the police to the minimum, aiming for their use as a restraining force. In this effort, he urged that they neither kill nor injure British people, but be willing to suffer and die if violence is initiated by the British officials. [285], While Gandhi expressed mostly positive views of Islam, he did occasionally criticise Muslims. An achievement while on the committee was the establishment of a Bayswater chapter. [420], Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948, including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee,[421] though he made the short list only twice, in 1937 and 1947. [382] However Gandhi himself did not approve of the notion of "Gandhism", as he explained in 1936: There is no such thing as "Gandhism", and I do not want to leave any sect after me. His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism, and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power." However, his final fast in 1948, after the end of British rule in India, his hunger strike was lauded by the British press and this time did include full-length photos. [191], According to Guha, Nehru and his Congress colleagues called on Indians to honour Gandhi's memory and even more his ideals. Despite health challenges Gandhi was able to walk about 79000 kms in his lifetime which comes to an average of 18 kms per day and is equivalent to walking around the earth twice. ». Gandhi a libéré son pays après des années de lutte opiniâtres : boycotts, marches, manifestations, jeûnes, campagnes de désobéissance civile. Not one of the marchers even raised an arm to fend off blows. Après les sources de l'époque, d'une pleuropneumonie attrapée en cours d'une partie ed chasse en plein hiver: Il a fait ses études à Kâthiâwar, puis à l’université de Londres, où il obtint son diplôme d’avocat. However, he could not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. His views on women's rights were less liberal and more similar to puritan-Victorian expectations of women, states Jayawardena, than other Hindu leaders with him who supported economic independence and equal gender rights in all aspects. The Hindu leader, Tej Bahadur Sapru, declared in 1941, states Herman, "A good many Congress leaders are fed up with the barren program of the Mahatma". Gandhi in Ahmedabad, on the day after the massacre in Amritsar, did not criticise the British and instead criticised his fellow countrymen for not exclusively using love to deal with the hate of the British government. Contre toute attente, Gandhi parvient à faire cesser le massacre, notamment à Calcutta, en septembre 1947. "[277] Gandhi believed this act of "collective suicide", in response to the Holocaust, "would have been heroism". [272][273] He was accused of accepting a deal with the King's representative Irwin that released civil disobedience leaders from prison and accepted the death sentence against the highly popular revolutionary Bhagat Singh, who at his trial had replied, "Revolution is the inalienable right of mankind". Gandhi was again arrested, and the government tried and failed to negate his influence by completely isolating him from his followers.[140]. [120] Gandhi demanded that people stop all violence, stop all property destruction, and went on fast-to-death to pressure Indians to stop their rioting. In parallel, Gandhi's fellowmen became sceptical of his pacifist ideas and were inspired by the ideas of nationalism and anti-imperialism. Harilal Mohandas Gandhi (Devanagari: हरीलाल गांधी), 1888 – 18 June 1948) was the eldest son of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. [105][106] Muslim leaders and delegates abandoned Gandhi and his Congress. His reply was in response to the question 'Who was the one person, dead or live, that you would choose to dine with?'. Des bagarres ont éclaté entre Hindous et musulmans. He went on to stay for 21 years. The political base behind Gandhi had broken into factions. [219], Additional theories of possible influences on Gandhi have been proposed. Gandhi était conscient que l’indépendance de son pays ne serait qu’un demi-succès si les fléaux qui divisaient la société indienne n’étaient pas combattus : système des castes, intouchabilité, fanatismes religieux. Sankhdher, M. M. (1972), "Gandhism: A Political Interpretation", President of the Indian National Congress, opposed the partition of the Indian subcontinent, emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine, List of fasts undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi, List of artistic depictions of Mahatma Gandhi, List of things named after Mahatma Gandhi, Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival, Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle With India, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Gandhi not formally conferred 'Father of the Nation' title: Govt", "Constitution doesn't permit 'Father of the Nation' title: Government", "International Vegetarian Union – Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)", "South African Medals that Mahatma Returned Put on View at Gandhi Mandap Exhibition", "A Letter to A Hindu: The Subjection of India-Its Cause and Cure", "Ram Guha is wrong. Intolerance betrays want of faith in one's cause. Le Congrès suivant l’avis de son vieux chef, vota une résolution invitant les Anglais a quitté l’Inde sans plus attendre, et Gandhi je suis de nouveau interné dans le palais de l’Agha Khan. Des centaines de milliers de personnes jalonnaient le parcours d’une dizaine de kilomètres entre Birla House et le fleuve. À la suite de l’assassinat du Mahatma, des troubles se sont produits à Bombay et dans la région. [238], Gandhi was acquainted with Sufi Islam's Chishti Order during his stay in South Africa. [137] Gandhi captured the imagination of the people of his heritage with his ideas about winning "hate with love". Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (/ˈɡɑːndi, ˈɡændi/;[2] 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948), also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was an Indian lawyer,[3] anti-colonial nationalist,[4] and political ethicist,[5] who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India's independence from British rule,[6] and in turn inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Jinnah refuse de participer au gouvernement provisoire de Nehru et appelle à une journée d'insurrection le 16 août 1946. [158], Gandhi opposition to the Indian participation in the World War II was motivated by his belief that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services. Gandhi and Jinnah had extensive correspondence and the two men met several times over a period of two weeks in September 1944, where Gandhi insisted on a united religiously plural and independent India which included Muslims and non-Muslims of the Indian subcontinent coexisting. [425] On 28 April 1947, Sarojini Naidu during a conference also referred Gandhi as "Father of the Nation". - ℹ - Biographie : Penseur, homme politique et dirigeant nationaliste indien (1869-1948) au rôle déterminant dans la lutte pour l'indépendance de l'Inde sous l'Empire britannique. [226], Gandhi credited Shrimad Rajchandra, a poet and Jain philosopher, as his influential counsellor. [132] Congress estimates, however, put the figure at 90,000. [119], In February 1919, Gandhi cautioned the Viceroy of India with a cable communication that if the British were to pass the Rowlatt Act, he would appeal to Indians to start civil disobedience. Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters. Biographie courte de Gandhi - Il était dit le Mahatma ("grande âme"). [137], Gandhi also campaigned hard going from one rural corner of the Indian subcontinent to another. [249] I. Bruce Watson states that some of these ideas are found not only in traditions within Hinduism, but also in Jainism or Buddhism, particularly those about non-violence, vegetarianism and universal love, but Gandhi's synthesis was to politicise these ideas. "[275] George Orwell remarked that Gandhi's methods confronted "an old-fashioned and rather shaky despotism which treated him in a fairly chivalrous way", not a totalitarian power, "where political opponents simply disappear. [347] He accused Gandhi as someone who wished to retain the caste system. [183][184] In other accounts, such as one prepared by an eyewitness journalist, Gandhi was carried into the Birla House, into a bedroom. He found it humiliating, struggling to understand how some people can feel honour or superiority or pleasure in such inhumane practices. [171], Gandhi opposed the partition of the Indian subcontinent along religious lines. Il y eut plus de 300 morts et 1 000 blessés. [70], The Abdullah case that had brought him to South Africa concluded in May 1894, and the Indian community organised a farewell party for Gandhi as he prepared to return to India. Thousands of Hindus and Muslims were murdered, and tens of thousands were injured in the cycle of violence in the days that followed.

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