There was talk of a marriage to Edward IV of England or to one of his brothers, probably Richard, Duke of Gloucester,[17] but this alliance was never seriously considered. ", In 1972, the Process of Valladolid was officially submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in the Vatican. Isabella was not in favour of enslavement of the American natives and established the royal position on how American indigenous should be treated. [5] Even though living conditions were difficult, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in a deep reverence for religion. En 1469, elle épouse le roi Ferdinand d'Aragon (Espagne). En 1479, Ferdinand devient roi d'Aragon. [56] And the Catholic Monarchs—who had proclaimed themselves rulers of Portugal and donated lands to noblemen inside this country[57]—had to give up the Portuguese crown. Mais devenue reine de Castille, elle refuse la fusion des deux royaumes. "[90][91], With the institution of the Roman Catholic Inquisition in Spain, and with the Dominican friar Tomás de Torquemada as the first Inquisitor General, the Catholic Monarchs pursued a policy of religious and national unity. The nobles, now in control of Alfonso and claiming that he was the true heir, clashed with King Henry's forces at the Second Battle of Olmedo in 1467. The council was responsible for supervising all senior administrative officials, such as the Crown representatives in all of the major towns. "The council of the Santa Hermandad: a study of the pacification forces of Ferdinand and Isabella", Medieval Sourcebook: Columbus' letter to King and Queen of Spain, 1494, University of Hull: Genealogy information on Isabella I,, Spanish exploration in the Age of Discovery, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ferdinand, in his testament, declared that "she was exemplary in all acts of virtue and of fear of God.". The living conditions at their castle in Arévalo were poor, and they suffered from a shortage of money. érotique. For other uses, see, For other people named Isabella of Castile, see, "Isabel la Católica" redirects here. As part of an agreement to restore peace, Isabella was to be betrothed to Pedro Girón Acuña Pacheco, Master of the Order of Calatrava and brother to the King's favourite, Juan Pacheco. The lives of the kings of this name before Ferdinand V. are contained in the chronicles, and in the Anales de Aragon of Zurita, and the History of Spain by Mariana. Fille de Ferdinand d'Aragon et d'Isabelle I re de Castille, Isabelle reçoit le prénom de sa mère.Elle aura comme ses frères et sœurs une bonne éducation digne de son rang : elle apprend les langues romanes et étudie la Bible, la littérature, les arts et les textes liturgiques.Son précepteur est le dominicain Pascual de Ampudia. Ferdinand II d'Aragon roi par mariage de Castille et León (1474-1504), puis roi d'Aragon, de Valence, de Majorque, de Sardaigne et de Sicile ; comte de Barcelone (1479 à 1516), comte de Roussillon et de Cerdagne (1493 à 1516); roi des Deux-Siciles (1504) En 1469, l'héritière de la couronne de Castille épouse l'héritier de la couronne d'Aragon. Reine de Castille (1474-1504) et d'Aragon (1479-1504) née le 22 avril 1451 à Madrigal de las Altas Torres (Castille), morte le 26 novembre 1504 à Medina del Campo (Espagne).. Isabelle est la fille de Jean II de Castille et d'Isabelle de Portugal.Trois ans après sa naissance, … Isabella officially withdrew from governmental affairs on 14 September 1504 and she died that same year on 26 November at the Medina del Campo Royal Palace. Ferdinand passa alors à l'attaque. Le règne d’Isabelle de Castille et Ferdinand d’Aragon, connus sous le nom de ‘rois catholiques’, titre que le Pape d’origine valencien, Alexandre VI, leur a donnés, a marqué la transition du Moyen Âge à la Modernité. [14] Isabella, however, was wary of the marriage and refused to consent. Isabelle 1ère (Madrigal de las Altas Torres 1451-Medina del Campo 1504), reine de Castille. La résistance fut farouche, mais la ville se rendit au bout de 6 mois aux Rois Catholiques le premier janvier de l'année 1492. Ferdinand, le stratège, s'adonna aux calculs les plus savants pour isoler une France expantionniste. Isabelle de Castille - Vikidia, l’encyclopédie des 8-13 ans Salluste: Inscription : 29 Août 2009 18:30 Message(s) : 249 Localisation : METZ Isabelle n'était pas dominante dans ce couple. La diplomatie, à l'époque, se résumait à avoir une bonne politique matrimoniale. On est en présence d'une union dynastique, pas d'une unité nationale : Ferdinand n'est pas [2][10] It seemed that finally the years of failed attempts at political marriages were over. While many of the nobility were forced to pay large sums of money for their estates, the royal treasury became even richer. Ferdinand II d'Aragon dit le Catholique (en castillan Fernando II el Católico ; en catalan Ferran el Catòlic), né le 10 mai 1452 à Sos (aujourdhui Sos del Rey Católico) et mort le 23 janvier 1516 à Madrigalejo, est roi de Castille et León de 1474 à 1504 (par mariage, sous le nom de Ferdinand V), roi d'Aragon, de Valence, de Majorque, de Sardaigne et de Sicile et comte de Barcelone de 1479 à 1516 (de son propre chef), comte de Roussillon et de Cer… By shutting down many of the mints and taking royal control over the production of money, Isabella restored the confidence of the public in the Crown's ability to handle the kingdom's finances. Faced with these news, the party of "la Beltraneja" [Joanna] was dissolved and the Portuguese were forced to return to their kingdom.[44]. Isabelle entre à Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on A la suite d'une réconciliation entre Ferdinand d'Aragon et le roi de Castille, celui-ci mourut à Ségovie le 12 décembre 1474. [citation needed] Along with the physical unification of Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand embarked on a process of spiritual unification, trying to bring the country under one faith (Roman Catholicism). [66], Keeping with her reformation of the regulation of laws, in 1481 Isabella charged two officials with restoring peace in Galicia. His marriage to Princess Isabella of Castile in 1469 made him king consort of Castile after she became queen of that country in 1474, and his inheritance of Aragon in 1479 was the decisive step that made Ferdinand and Isabella the first king and queen of a united Spain. [88], After an episode in which Columbus captured 1,200 men, Isabella ordered their return and the arrest of Columbus, who was insulted in the streets of Granada. Especially in Castile, the main achievement was to use more effectively the institutions that had existed during the reigns of John II and Henry IV. Isabella's confessor, Cisneros, was named Archbishop of Toledo. Her daughter, Isabella of Aragon, died during the birth of her son, Miguel da Paz, who passed away shortly after, at the age of two. La princesse Isabelle épouse le prince Ferdinand en 1469. Isabella and her husband had created an empire and in later years were consumed with administration and politics; they were concerned with the succession and worked to link the Spanish crown to the other rulers in Europe. Although her father arranged in his will for his children to be financially well taken care of, King Henry did not comply with their father's wishes, either from a desire to keep his half-siblings restricted, or from ineptitude. King Henry agreed to recognize Alfonso as his heir presumptive, provided that he would marry his daughter, Princess Joanna la Beltraneja. [55] The Catholic Monarchs also had to accept that Joanna la Beltraneja remain in Portugal instead of Spain[55] and to pardon all rebellious subjects who had supported Joanna and King Alfonso. Here he married the young Joanna. L'Aragonais était à l'époque un territoire avec pour débouché méditerranéen Barcelone. La situation fut pratiquement rétablit à l'intérieur lorsque les Cortes de Castille reconnurent Isabelle. Jamais, rois ne furent plus près de leur peuple, au dire des témoins de l'époque. Those that had not been granted as a reward for services were to be restored without compensation, while those that had been sold at a price far below their real value were to be bought back at the same sum. Isabelle naît le 22 avril 1451 à Madrigal de las Altas Torres dans le palais de son père, Jean II de Castille. [83] The following year, Loja was taken, and again Muhammad XII was captured and released. [18] Isabella refused and made a secret promise to marry her cousin and very first betrothed, Ferdinand of Aragon. Romance. Ferdinand rétablissait aussi des liens avec le Portugal en donnant sa fille Isabelle au roi Alfonse. [75] As mentioned previously, Isabella had little care for personal bribes or favours. [21] Afraid of opposition, Isabella eloped from the court of Henry with the excuse of visiting her brother Alfonso's tomb in Ávila. But while the Portuguese King reorganised his troops, Ferdinand sent news to all the cities of Castile and to several foreign kingdoms informing them about a huge victory where the Portuguese were crushed. A major part of the alliance was that a marriage was to be arranged between Charles and Isabella. The second body was made up of some 200 permanent servants or continos who performed a wide range of confidential functions on behalf of the rulers. [15], A civil war broke out in Castile over King Henry's inability to act as sovereign. tout le XVI s. Un empire océanique Publication date [c1920] Topics Isabella I, Queen of Spain, 1451-1504, Spain -- History Ferdinand and Isabella, 1479-1516 Publisher Paris Hachette Collection … In addition to these departments, there was also a Supreme Court of the Santa Hermandad, a Council of Finance, and a Council for settling purely Aragonese matters. Look at other dictionaries: Ferdinand II. Avis de lectures. One year later, with the fall of Málaga, the western part of the Muslim Nasrid kingdom had fallen into Spanish hands. [2][8] Soon after he was named Prince of Asturias, Isabella's younger brother Alfonso died in July 1468, likely of the plague. As the orders received by Columbus in his first voyage (1492) show: "[the Catholic Monarchs] have always in mind that the limits signed in the share of Alcáçovas should not be overcome, and thus they insist with Columbus to sail along the parallel of Canary. Étant cousins, les futurs mariés devaient demander l'autorisation du pape, mais pour gagner du temps, l'archevèque fit rédiger un faux! Un dernier coup du sort, cette fois-ci heureux, donna sans coup férir la Navarre à un Ferdinand vieillissant (1512). In May 1475, King Alfonso and his army crossed into Spain and advanced to Plasencia. [111], Coat of arms as Princess of Asturias(1468–1474), Coat of arms as queen with Castilian royal supporters (1492–1504), Coat of arms of Isabella I of Castile depicted in the manuscript from 1495 Breviary of Isabella the Catholic. Ce fut aussi un drame pour Ferdinand, mais plutôt d'un point de vue politique. Isabella was short but of strong stocky build, of a very fair complexion, and had a hair color that was between strawberry-blonde and auburn. [72] By the 1470s, when Isabella began to take a firm grip on the royal administration, the senior offices of the royal household were simply honorary titles and held strictly by the nobility. En attendant que cette rubrique soit disponible, vous pouvez consulter les écrits et les enregistrements suivants, que … The war dragged on for another three years[49] and ended with a Castilian victory on land[50] and a Portuguese victory on the sea. Isabelle de Castille, dite aussi Isabelle la Catholique, reine d'Espagne (ou plutôt reine de Castille), née le 22 avril 1451, morte à Medina del Campo le 26 novembre 1504.Fille de Jean II, roi de Castille, et de sa seconde femme, Isabelle de Portugal, petite-fille du grand roi Jean l er, elle n'hérita heureusement pas de l'indolence de son père.